Typically the headache affects one half of the head, is pulsating in nature, and lasts from 2 to 72 hours. Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is generally made worse by physical activity. Up to one-third of people with migraine headaches perceive an aura: a transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbance which signals that the headache will soon occur. Occasionally an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.
Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors. About two-thirds of cases run in families. Changing hormone levels may also play a role, as migraines affect slightly more boys than girls before puberty, but about two to three times more women than men. The risk of migraines usually decreases during pregnancy. The exact mechanisms of migraine are not known. It is, however, believed to be a neurovascular disorder. The primary theory is related to increased excitability of the cerebral cortex and abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem.
Initial recommended management is with simple analgesics such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) for the headache, an antiemetic for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers. Specific agents such as triptans or ergotamines may be used by those for whom simple analgesics are not effective. Globally, approximately 15% of the population is affected by migraines at some point in life.
Medical Marijuana Efficacy
Recent research has shown that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, inhibits the release of serotonin from the blood of migraine sufferers during an acute attack, thereby reducing symptoms of pain.
Although further scientific research is needed, many patients are using medical marijuana safely and effectively to prevent and treat their migraine headaches. Many patients have found that they no longer need prescription medications with adverse side effects in order to treat their migraines.
Others have found that the other benefits of medical marijuana, like improved sleep and less stress and anxiety, reduce the frequency of their migraines.
Official Research Reports
Cluster attacks responsive to recreational cannabis and dronabinol. (Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM, 2009)
Cannabinoids block release of serotonin from platelets induced by plasma from migraine patients (Volfe Z, Dvilansky A, Nathan I, 1985)
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